The London borough of Brent was the most ethnically diverse
local authority area in England and Wales in 2001, while
diverse, according to new analysis published by the Office
for National Statistics.
This new analysis of diversity is based on the likelihood that two
people at random will belong to different ethnic groups. In Brent
the likelihood was 85 per cent while in Easington it was 2 per
cent. Brent's predominant ethnic groups were White British (29
per cent), Indian (18 per cent), Black Caribbean (10 per cent),
Other White (9 per cent) and Black African (8 per cent).
The report, Focus on Ethnicity and Religion, brings together
statistics from the Census on the key demographic, geographic,
household and labour market differences between the main
ethnic and religious groups in Great Britain. It analyses factors
that contribute to these differences and shows new analysis on
ethno-religious groups, changes between 1991 and 2001, and the
diversity of different areas. Because of its large size the Census is
used for detailed analysis of small population groups.
Other analyses for England and Wales show that:
Harrow the most religiously diverse area
The London borough of Harrow had the highest religious diversity
in England and Wales in 2001, a 62 per cent chance that two
people at random would be from different religious groups.
Harrow's predominant religious groups were Christian (47 per
cent), Hindu (20 per cent), Muslim (7 per cent) and Jewish (6 per
Few areas had high ethnic or religious diversity
Fewer than one in ten (7 per cent) local authority areas had a
high level of ethnic diversity and just 3 per cent had high religious
diversity, defined as a 50 per cent chance that two people at
random will belong to different groups. Across England and
Wales, 87 per cent of the population were White British and 72
per cent were Christian.
Ethno-religious groups concentrated in different areas
Ethno-religious groups are made up of people who have both the
same ethnicity and the same religion. People from different ethnoreligious
groups tended to live in different areas of England and
Wales, for example Indian Muslims were more likely to live in the
North West region than Indian Hindus or Indian Sikhs (one in four
compared with one in twenty and one in fifty).
Unemployment rates highest for Black African Muslims
Unemployment rates varied between Muslims of different ethnic
groups. Black African Muslim men and women had some of the
highest unemployment rates in 2001, 28 per cent and 31 per cent.
In contrast unemployment rates among Indian Muslims were
lower at 11 per cent for men and 12 per cent for women.
High unemployment rates among UK-born ethnic minorities
In both the 16-24 and 25-39 age groups, unemployment rates
among UK born men and women from the Black, Bangladeshi
and Pakistani ethnic groups were more than twice as high as
those of White British men and women.
Analyses for Great Britain as a whole show that:
Home ownership rates fell most among South Asian
households between 1991 and 2001
Between 1991 and 2001 home ownership rates fell the most
among Indian households (from 82 per cent to 76 per cent),
Pakistani households (from 76 per cent to 67 per cent) and
Bangladeshi households (from 44 per cent to 37 per cent). Home
ownership increased only among White households, from 66 per
cent to 69 per cent.
Household size decreased by most among South Asians
It is well established that average household size fell between
1991 and 2001. However, the decrease was largest among the
South Asian groups, falling from 3.8 to 3.3 among Indian
households, from 4.8 to 4.1 among Pakistani households and
from 5.2 to 4.5 among Bangladeshi households. In comparison,
White household size fell from 2.4 to 2.3.
Black African and Bangladeshi households had some of
highest overcrowding rates
In 2001, 44 per cent of Bangladeshi and 42 per cent of Black
African households were overcrowded, 7 times the rate of
overcrowding among White British households (6 per cent).
Workless households with dependent children prevalent
among Bangladeshi and Black African groups
Over a third (34 per cent) of Bangladeshi and Black African
households with dependent children were workless (contained no
working adult) in 2001. Far fewer, around 1 in 6, White British
households with dependent children were workless (16 per cent).
Muslim households most likely to be workless
A third (33 per cent) of Muslim households with dependent
children contained no working adult in 2001, contrasting with
fewer than 1 in 7 (15 per cent) of Christian households with
Religious diversity among ethnic groups
Some ethnic groups are more religiously diverse than others. The
Indian group was the most religiously diverse ethnic group; its
predominant groups were Hindu (45 per cent), Sikh (29 per cent),
Muslim (13 per cent) and Christian (5 per cent). Pakistani and
Bangladeshis were among the least religiously diverse groups (9
out of 10 were Muslims).
Ethnic diversity among religious groups
Similarly, some religious groups were ethnically diverse. Muslims
were among the most ethnically diverse religious group, 43 per
cent were Pakistani, 17 per cent were Bangladeshi, 8 per cent
were Indian, 7 per cent Other White and 4 per cent White British.
Christians and Sikhs were the least ethnically diverse religions, as
more than 90 per cent of people from these religions belonged to
the same ethnic groups.