Congestion at Heathrow Airport has meant spin-off benefits for the capital's other airports, particularly Gatwick, which now serves 276 destinations - more than any other European gateway, including Heathrow.
Meanwhile, the public inquiry into Heathrow's proposed terminal five, which would increase the annaul passenger capacity to 80-85 million, is now in its thrid year. It is expected to finish in the autumn, with bureaucracy delaying a government decision until spring 2000 and construction - if approved - taking up to five years.
Apart from the increase in numbers of flights and passengers at Gatwick, none of London's airports can match London City. In the past three years, the number of airline flying from here has gone up to 11 and the range of destinations to 20, and the number of passengers have risen 100% to top one million.