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Ken Livingstone, mayor of London, today launched the Transport Strategy which sets the framework for transport in t...
Ken Livingstone, mayor of London, today launched the Transport Strategy which sets the framework for transport in the capital for the next decade. The launch follows a year of consultation with residents, businesses and other stakeholders.
Mr Livingstone said: 'My transport strategy is the most comprehensive and ambitious plan to expand and improve transport that London has ever seen. It will radically improve and expand public transport, and take strong measures - including congestion charging in central London - to reduce the traffic congestion which blights the city.'
The strategy addresses the different needs of outer, inner and central London and will extend the transport system to support regeneration in east London and other areas.
The immediate goal is to increase and improve bus services with 27 major routes upgraded by April 2002 and lower fares. A 70p flat rate bus fare will be introduced throughout the city.
The strategy will:
* increase bus capacity by 40% by 2011
* increase London Underground and rail capacity by 40% in ten years
* reduce traffic in central London by 15%, cut traffic growth in inner London to zero and in outer London by a third
Mr Livingstone added: 'Two thirds of new rail and Underground capacity will be delivered by new rail schemes - Thameslink, Crossrail, the East London Line, the Hackney-South West Line - which will be taken forward jointly with the government and the Strategic Rail Authority.
'On the Underground, I have accepted Bob Kiley's advice to reject London Underground's current version of PPP and adopted Mr Kiley's proposals which will deliver more rapid improvements in services and the unified management control essential for safety and efficiency.
'I can confirm that Transport for London will be mounting a legal challenge to London Underground's PPP later this month.
'Over the next decade London will see an enormous and long overdue investment in its public transport system. It must be properly managed. I have assembled the best team of transport professionals in the world to lead Transport for London. They must now be allowed to deliver the world class transport system this city requires.'
The full Transport Strategy document (458 pages broken into a number of smaller files) is available for downloading for free. It will also be available to read in public libraries.
Alternatively telephone 020 7983 4323 or fax 020 7983 4706 to order the full transport strategy (£10 for a printed copy, or£2.35 including VAT for a CD-ROM).
A free highlights document will also be available in late July.
About the Transport Strategy
The Strategy is an integrated package of measures to improve transport, enhance the environment and foster London's economic development. It deals with improving public transport, including bus, Underground and the overground railways and addressing the need for a unified publicly owned Underground. It also seeks early improvements in the reliability, quality, and capacity of London's bus network. For the longer term it proposes a package of new rail lines. Overall the strategy aims to increase the capacity of London's rail and Underground system by 50 per cent by 2016. It also examines how best to tackle congestion on London's streets, including proposing a central London congestion charge, and the need to provide efficient access for London's deprived communities and to regeneration areas. And it looks at how conditions can be improved for all users of London's streets - car users, buses, and people walking and cycling. It includes plans to improve travel options for disabled people. Last but not least, the Strategy also includes proposals to address the needs of business, for deliveries, servicing and freight.
Your views
Earlier this year Mr Livingstone asked Londoners for their opinions on his transport plans for London.
The draft strategy document - Mayor's Transport Strategy: Draft for Public Consultation - was sent to around 1,500 organisations and stakeholders (including the 33 London boroughs, 73 London MPs and MEPs, and around 1,400 other organisations, including libraries). In addition, a leaflet was delivered to households in London informing members of the public that they could telephone a dedicated freephone line to request a copy of a 24 page summary document - Highlights of The Mayor's Draft Transport Strategy or the full Draft Strategy.
Comments were invited from stakeholder organisations and the public. The consultation period on the Draft Transport Strategy ended on Friday, 30 March 2001.
A report summarising the responses to this consultation exercise has been produced by MORI. The summary section of this document - The Mayor's Transport Strategy: Report on Public Consultation on the Draft Transport Strategy - is also available for downloading from this page using the links below. The full report will be made available at a later date.
Download The Mayor's Transport Strategy: Report on Public Consultation on the Draft Transport Strategy in pdf form (30k)
Download The Mayor's Transport Strategy: Report on Public Consultation on the Draft Transport Strategy in rtf form (982k)
executive summary
1 London is a great world city. It is the powerhouse of the British economy and the gateway to the UK for international investment and tourism. As the financial centre of Europe in the globalised economy, London competes with the very best in the world. Sustaining that world role, upon which the prosperity of London and, to a significant degree, the UK depends, requires world class infrastructure and a transport system which maximises the city's economic efficiency and the quality of life of its citizens. The scale and complexity of London?s transport needs are on a different level to those of any other part of the UK. They are comparable only with those of other great world cities - such as New York, Paris or Tokyo. To take just one example, every day the London Underground carries roughly the same number of passengers as the entire National Rail network. The goal of this Transport Strategy is to start to equip London with the modern and efficient transport system it will need to compete on a world scale in the first decades of the 21st Century.
2 The task is immense. Over the last decade London's rising population, strong economic growth and growing tourism have led to increasing pressures on its supply of housing, offices, appropriately skilled labour and, critically, transport. These pressures have not been matched by the necessary increases in the supply of homes, office stock, transport, and other factors. The city's transport system has been starved of the investment necessary to sustain existing services, let alone meet the challenge of rising travel demand. In consequence, the capacity, reliability and overall performance of London's transport system has fallen far behind the needs of London's economy and citizens.
3 London's transport crisis harms business efficiency, threatens to undermine the city's competitive position in the world, and worsens the quality of life of Londoners. Traffic congestion is such that roads in central London and some London town centres are now approaching gridlock - polluting the city's air and causing misery to motorists, bus passengers and pedestrians alike. By the middle of 2001, the rail system had still not fully recovered from the unprecedented crisis which followed the tragic accident at Hatfield. Underground passengers face gross overcrowding on trains, broken escalators and serious problems of unreliability.

4 Traffic congestion and under-resourced public transport are regularly identified by the public and business as London's most pressing problems. Without vigorous action, these problems are set to increase, as rising population and growing economic prosperity put more pressure on the system. The fundamental policy direction of all the Mayor's Strategies is to accommodate the rising population and economic growth which result from London's world city role in the process of globalisation. This requires a rapidly and sustainably rising supply of affordable housing, public transport provision, education and skills, office stock, and other key factors. London's transport system in particular requires a step change improvement in quality of service and capacity, and the investment to make this possible.
5 The Transport Strategy coincides with four factors which make it possible to begin to resolve London's transport crisis.
* Restoration of democratically accountable government for the city, and the creation of the office of a directly elected Mayor, provides a democratic mandate for the strong decisions necessary to address London's development needs and the crisis of the transport system.
* The integration of London's transport services through Transport for London (TfL) allows a unified and integrated approach to the Capital's transport system.
* The introduction of world class management with a proven track record to lead TfL.
* The allocation by Government of a level of financial resources that begins to address the prolonged problem of under-investment, with possibilities for further resources to be generated.
6 The opportunity therefore exists to tackle London's most serious problem, transport. Without strong, centralised and coherent action along the lines proposed in the Strategy, the inadequacies of the transport system will continue to impair economic growth, reduce the quality of life for London's population, and will fail to support London's development needs. An unco-ordinated approach will be entirely insufficient to solve the scale of problems that exist. That is why the return of democratic government to London must be accompanied by the mobilisation of the necessary resources, management expertise and political will to make good the huge backlog of investment which has built up and, at the same time, plan the transport expansion necessary to meet London's needs as national capital and the dominant financial centre of Europe into the 21st Century.
7 The Mayor's first priority is to create a world class transport system which enhances business efficiency, ensures a wider spread of the fruits of economic prosperity and improves the quality of life of every Londoner. In terms of the levels of investment proposed, the Government's 10 Year Plan for Transport and the Spending Review 2000 settlement share this objective and make available significant resources to achieve it, although this Strategy argues more is necessary.
8 Achieving this requires not only overcoming chronic under-investment, but also a complete overhaul of public transport management which began with the appointment of the Commissioner of Transport for London; the introduction of the best private sector expertise where appropriate; and the reshaping of transport operators' contracts to put the needs of London's travellers and voters first. This must be accompanied in the medium and long term by an increase in the capacity of the public transport system to relieve overcrowding, and accommodate economic and demographic growth. Implementing the Transport Strategy will increase the overall capacity of London's Underground and rail systems by up to 50 per cent over the next fifteen years. The major rail projects proposed in the Strategy will account for almost two-thirds of this increase, with the remainder resulting from improvements to the existing Underground and National Rail networks. Alongside this, the Strategy aims for an increase of 40 per cent in bus capacity across London by 2011.
9 To fulfil these tasks, which are crucial for London's future, requires the involvement and partnership of all with a stake in the Capital around a coherent plan for transforming transport. The public sector must work hand-in-hand with business, community organisations, and all major representatives of Londoners. The Greater London Authority (GLA) and TfL must work with central Government, the London boroughs and local strategic partnerships, the Strategic Rail Authority (SRA) and public transport operators. Londoners must influence the planning and operation of the transport system that serves them. The Strategy provides the framework to help build a consensus between all stakeholders around creating a world class transport system for the Capital. It has been finalised following consultation with stakeholders and the public early in 2001, which gave broad support for the approach set out in the public consultation draft. Where appropriate, the views of respondents have been incorporated into this final Strategy.
10 Over the next decade, as London's economy continues to develop, billions of pounds will be invested in economic development and regeneration. This will be supported by the development of the transport system set out in this Strategy. The needs of the different parts of London must be addressed - inner and outer, east and west, north and south, with flexible policies to meet local requirements. Transport investment will be integrated with, and support, economic growth, developing business regions and regeneration areas. Attention will be paid to the varying transport requirements of London?s business sectors. Better links to regeneration areas will be planned. The Strategy will also deliver the transport links necessary for the development of east London set out in the emerging London Plan (Spatial Development Strategy).
11 The Mayor's vision is to develop London as an exemplary sustainable world city based on:
* strong and diverse economic growth
* social inclusivity to allow all Londoners to share in London's future success
* fundamental improvements in environmental management and use of resources
12 Achieving this vision will make London:
A prosperous city: in which all share in the benefits of wealth created in London's dynamic economy.
A city for people: a liveable city of safe, attractive streets, where goods and services are within easy reach and where everyone feels safe and secure.
An accessible city: with fast, efficient and comfortable means of transport, and access to affordable homes, education and training, health, leisure and recreation.
A fair city: showing tolerance and abolishing all forms of discrimination, where neighbourhoods and communities have a say in their futures.
A green city: making efficient use of natural resources and energy, respecting the natural world and wildlife, using to the full the varied patterns of open space, eco-friendly design and construction methods, recycling waste and creating new 'green industries'.
13 To support the vision of London as an exemplary sustainable world city, the Transport Strategy will increase the capacity, reliability, efficiency, quality and integration of the transport system to provide the world class transport system the capital needs. The ten key transport priorities, which flow from this, are:
* reducing traffic congestion;
* overcoming the backlog of investment on the Underground so as to safely increase capacity, reduce overcrowding, and increase both reliability and frequency of services;
* making radical improvements to bus services across London, including increasing the bus system's capacity, improving reliability and increasing the frequency of services;
* better integration of the National Rail system with London's other transport systems to facilitate commuting, reduce overcrowding, increase safety and move towards a Londonwide, high frequency 'turn up and go' Metro service;
* increasing the overall capacity of London's transport system by promoting: major new cross-London rail links including improving access to international transport facilities; improved orbital rail links in inner London; and new Thames river crossings in east London;
* improving journey time reliability for car users, which will particularly benefit outer London where car use dominates, whilst reducing car dependency by increasing travel choice;
* supporting local transport initiatives, including improved access to town centres and regeneration areas, walking and cycling schemes, Safer Routes to School, road safety improvements, better maintenance of roads and bridges, and improved co-ordination of streetworks;
* making the distribution of goods and services in London more reliable, sustainable and efficient, whilst minimising negative environmental impacts;
* improving the accessibility of London's transport system so that everyone, regardless of disability, can enjoy the benefits of living in, working in and visiting the Capital, thus improving social inclusion;
* bringing forward new integration initiatives to: provide integrated, simple and affordable public transport fares; improve key interchanges; enhance safety and security across all means of travel; ensure that taxis and private hire vehicles are improved and fully incorporated into London's transport system; and provide much better information and waiting environment.
14 In delivering the ten key priorities for the transport system, the Strategy will ensure that transport is effectively integrated with land use planning, economic development and regeneration, equality of opportunity and social inclusion, health, environmental improvement and sustainability.
15 A vital objective is ensuring personal safety and peace of mind, particularly for women using public transport and the street. The Strategy supports co-ordination of the efforts of Transport for London, the boroughs, the police and the emergency services to meet this goal.
16 A key link in the chain is a transformation in the culture of London's transport providers. Londoners and other transport users must be the focus. Customer satisfaction must be the prime objective of transport operators and contracts must be framed to enforce this culture.
17 Despite its wealth, London contains many of the UK's most deprived communities. The cycle of deprivation is often reinforced by inadequate transport links, which are an impediment in matching job opportunities and potential employees. Easy, reliable and affordable access by public transport from these communities to jobs and services is a key requirement for their regeneration.
18 The Strategy will encourage a shift to greener, more efficient travel options, and seek improvements to the environmental performance of all forms of transport.
19 It will take another generation to catch up fully on the under-investment of the last generation. There is no magic wand, but three steps will be decisive:
* to break through the log jam of missed investment opportunities by overcoming the backlog of vital maintenance and renewal, particularly on the Underground;
* to make clear and decisive commitments to take forward the much needed major transport infrastructure projects that will improve reliability and efficiency and will expand capacity in the longer term;
* to bring more immediate benefits by radically improving bus services.
20 The road network is now operating at levels of congestion that have a serious effect on the efficiency and health of the city, damage the environment and reduce people's quality of life. A major programme of new road schemes to provide substantial additional capacity would be environmentally unacceptable and financially unaffordable. Traffic movement in central and inner London is already severely hampered by congestion, which is economically inefficient and environmentally damaging, and congestion is growing rapidly in outer London. It is impossible, either financially or in terms of environmental consequences, to develop transport to, from and within central London substantially on the basis of the private car. The Strategy seeks to address the problem by an integrated package of improvements in public and social transport, better enforcement of traffic and parking regulations, and the introduction of a proposed congestion charging scheme to deter unnecessary vehicle journeys in central London.
21 The Strategy aims to improve people's access to jobs and services by enhancing public transport, walking and cycling so that they become realistic alternatives to the car for an increasing number of journeys. It promotes a transfer from the car to public and social transport. At the same time, the Strategy recognises that the car is, and will continue to be, many people's preferred means of travel for particular journeys, especially in outer London. The Strategy aims to make such journeys safer and more reliable whilst minimising negative environmental impacts. However, the development of public transport will have first priority.
22 The majority of journeys in London involve using more than one means of travel. But transport providers have often only considered their specific part of the system and ignored how they should link together. The Strategy seeks a truly integrated transport system for London.
23 The Underground is the core of London's public transport system. There can be no sustained, long term improvement in transport in the Capital without tackling the legacy of years of under-investment in the Tube. The consequences are evident in the unreliability of the service, the constant breakdowns of escalators and many other manifestations of a deteriorating system functioning far below its potential. This Strategy brings world class management and proposes the programme of investment needed to rehabilitate the London Underground.
24 In tackling this situation, the lessons of the crisis which has followed privatisation of the National Rail network must be understood. The resulting fragmentation of management control is widely recognised as a key factor which undermined safety and efficiency. The national railways have shown that in systems in which it is impossible to introduce real competition, as in the Underground, privatisation, by removing or weakening public accountability, is likely to result in a deterioration in performance. Ineffectual attempts to introduce 'competition' into situations that are inherently monopolised will fragment management control, creating further reductions in quality and the inability to impose a coherent pattern on systems that by their very nature are extremely centralised. London Underground?s current Public Private Partnership (PPP) proposal is poor value for money, sets the wrong priorities, takes too long to deliver improvements in services, and repeats the division of operations and maintenance which has proved to be a major source of problems on National Rail.
25 The Mayor's reasons for not agreeing with London Underground's version of PPP are set out in full in chapter 4C - London Underground and in annex 3.
26 This Transport Strategy advocates retaining London Underground as a single public service system under a unified management with large-scale utilisation of private sector companies? expertise. Instead of fragmenting management control of a system that is even more intensively used than the National Rail network, the Strategy advocates recruiting the best management expertise in the world to manage a long term programme of investment. This will involve the large-scale deployment of private sector expertise throughout a radically reorganised but unitary system. The Strategy argues that the Underground should be transferred to TfL without further delay so that the long overdue programme of renewal and rehabilitation can begin.
27 The Mayor believes that his goals for London Underground would be met by the programme for the rehabilitation and management, which has been developed by the Commissioner of Transport for London and agreed by the Mayor as part of the Transport Strategy - outlined in chapter 4C - London Underground.
28 National Rail is another crucial component of the Capital's transport system. The Strategy seeks to ensure that operators provide improved services, and that those operators that fail to meet performance targets on reducing crowding and increasing passenger comfort are severely penalised. The Strategy seeks a partnership with the Strategic Rail Authority to develop appropriate National Rail services in London into a high frequency 'Metro' system geared to London's needs, and to achieve high levels of reliability and adequate capacity over the whole system.
29 The bus system has the potential to deliver service improvements relatively rapidly. The Strategy aims for a real change in the quality of the London bus system during the Mayor's first term of office. Reliability and journey times, information, cleanliness and passenger service are all in need of significant improvement. The Strategy aims to make buses the first choice for a greater number of journeys. For shorter journeys in central and inner London this will help to relieve overcrowding on the Underground. In outer London, buses will continue to be the primary means of public transport and will be improved to offer a real alternative to the car. Key priorities will be improving services that offer alternatives to car travel to central London and other town centres, and those that support economic regeneration.
30 To enable passengers to get the most from the whole public transport system, the Strategy seeks to secure consistently easier and more convenient interchange, particularly between the Underground, rail and bus; and to improve travel information, particularly on bus and rail services.
31 Across all modes of public transport it is important to ensure fares are affordable, providing an economic incentive to switch from cars to public transport. The Strategy proposes a three year freeze on bus fares, no real increase in Underground fares for three years, better integration with National Rail, and the Londonwide introduction of flexible Smartcard ticketing.
32 For many of London's transport users, walking and using public transport or public car parks are perceived as unsafe, particularly at night. The Mayor intends to provide a travelling environment that is safe and secure for all, regardless of the time of travel.
33 There are estimated to be at least half a million people in London who find it very difficult or impossible to use public transport because of the physical constraints of the system. London's buses and black cabs are leading the way in ensuring the improved mobility of disabled Londoners. The Strategy aims to significantly improve the accessibility of London's transport system so that all Londoners, regardless of their mobility, can enjoy the benefits of living in, working or visiting the capital and so that London's diverse communities enjoy good transport links.
34 The Strategy advocates development of the River Thames as a transport link and showcase for London's culture, architectural excellence and natural environment. It supports the new river crossings necessary for economic regeneration in the Thames Gateway.
35 In working to better meet the needs of business, new partnerships will be developed with the business community to ensure that its views are heard. This includes ensuring reasonable access to business premises for servicing and delivery, and reviewing how best to develop freight quality partnerships, which bring both greater efficiency and environmental benefits.
36 The Strategy takes account of the financial resources expected to be available - currently principally the transport grant from Government and fares revenue from passengers, although it also advocates additional sources of financing, such as bonds.
37 The financial approach adopted is:
* For 2001/2 to 2003/4, to base plans to the relatively fixed levels of grant availability promised in the Government?s Spending Review 2000 (approximately£3 billion over these years, excluding the Underground).
* For 2004/5 to 2010/11, to base plans on what London needs to both make good past under-investment and meet the challenge of growing population, employment and wealth. This will require up to£500m more by 2006/7 than the funding levels implied by the Government's 10 Year Plan for Transport. The net revenue of£200m per annum from the proposed central London congestion charging scheme could cover part of this funding gap. The Strategy argues that the Government should increase its implied funding by up to£300m a year by 2006/7.
* For implementing the major schemes, apart from substantial specific Government funding, financing through the private sector or through bonds will also be needed to spread the financial costs and risks.
* For the Underground, the Government has promised separate funding in addition to that set out in the 10 Year Plan for Transport, to underpin essential investment to bring the Underground's assets and operations up to the required standards as set out in this Strategy. It is essential that this funding and concomitant financing arrangements for the Underground are adequate to allow maximum progress towards the full rehabilitation and modernisation of the Underground within the ten year horizon of the Strategy period, and also to fund necessary improvements to the Underground system, particularly to enhance station and train capacity.
* For National Rail, to look to the SRA to ensure that London receives its fair share of the£60bn national rail investment promised by the Government over the next ten years.
38 There are inevitably many uncertainties in future planning. Fares revenues, in particular, are sensitive to the overall levels of economic activity. Where these affect overall resources available, they may affect the timing of the delivery of the Strategy. In addition, TfL is continuing to develop its business planning processes. This will help identify improvements by which the Strategy's desired outcomes can be achieved in more effective or efficient ways than have so far been identified - or in some cases, show that particular Strategy proposals may be more difficult, take longer, or be more expensive to achieve than currently anticipated.
39 The Mayor is committed to driving forward implementation of the Strategy, which includes a range of performance indicators and targets which will be kept under regular review, and against which progress can be measured. The overall aim is to have transformed London's transport system into the world class system the Capital requires over the next ten years.
40 The inadequacy of London's transport system, under the pressure of economic and population growth on the one hand and under-investment on the other, has become a key problem affecting business efficiency and quality of life of the city. Resolving this is the highest priority of London?s new city government. The only viable approach, from both a financial and an environmental point of view, is one where passenger travel to, from and within central London must primarily be served by public transport. In outer London, even with the Strategy's planned radical improvements to public transport, the car will continue to remain the main means of transport.
41 This Strategy sets out a strong and integrated set of measures over a broad ten year horizon (2001-2011). It will reduce traffic in central London, cut its rate of growth in inner and outer London, and substantially increase the capacity and reliability of public transport in the city as a whole. Implementation will be taken forward principally through the more detailed plans and actions of a range of agencies, particularly Transport for London, the London boroughs and the Strategic Rail Authority. The Mayor will use his democratic mandate to drive implementation forward to achieve the improvements London requires.
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