The main findings are: -
In 1998-99, 64 per cent of 16 to 21 year olds participated in some form of full or part time education, compared to 42 per cent in 1988-89.
For both males and females, total participation of 16 to 21 year olds in education increased slightly between 1997-98 and 1998-99. A larger percentage of females (67 per cent) participated in education in 1998-99 than males (62 per cent) due entirely to the higher participation rate for females in Higher Education. There are small differences in participation between males and females in School and Further Education. However, the slightly higher participation of females in school education is offset by a slightly higher male participation in Further Education. (Table 1)
The number of 16 year olds who participated in education fell slightly between 1997-98 and 1998-99, due to a reduction in the numbers of 16 year olds in school, offset partially by an increase in those participating in part time Further Education. However, the estimated population also fell over this period, and by a larger amount, resulting in a slight increase in the participation rate for 16 year olds from 93 per cent in 1997-98 to 94 per cent in 1998-99. (Table 3)
Three quarters of 17 year olds participated in education in 1998-99, a slight increase on the previous year, and due to a small increase in the numbers who were in part time Further Education. (Table 4)
The numbers of 18 year olds in full time education fell slightly between 1997-98 and 1998-99. However, as the estimated population of 18 year olds increased over this period, the participation rate in full time education fell from 47 per cent to 45 per cent. However, participation in part time Further Education increased, resulting in a small increase in total participation, from 62 per cent in 1997-98 to 63 per cent in 1998-99. (Table 5)
Even with a large increase in the estimated population of 19 year olds, this age group showed the largest increase in participation, from 55 per cent in 1997-98 to 59 per cent in 1998-99. This was due to increases in those undertaking full time Higher Education and part time Further Education. There were also small increases in the numbers undertaking full time Further Education and part time Higher Education. (Table 6)
Increases in the numbers undertaking full time Higher Education and part time Further Education resulted in a small increase in the participation of 20 year olds in education, from 49 per cent in 1997-98 to 50 per cent in 1998-99. (Table 7)
The increase in numbers of 21 year olds participating in part time Further Education, combined with a fall in the estimated population, resulted in an increase in participation for 21 year olds, from 41 per cent in 1997-98 to 44 per cent in 1998-99. (Table 8)
The following tables are available:
Table 1 Participation in education of 16 to 21 year olds by gender, individual age and level of education: 1997-98 and 1998-99
Table 2 Participation in education of 16 to 21 year olds by mode of education and individual age: 1988-89 to 1998-99
Table 3 Participation in education of 16 year olds by mode and level of education: 1988-89 to 1998-99
Table 4 Participation in education of 17 year olds by mode and level of education: 1988-89 to 1998-99
Table 5 Participation in education of 18 year olds by mode and level of education: 1988-89 to 1998-99
Table 6 Participation in education of 19 year olds by mode and level of education: 1988-89 to 1998-99
Table 7 Participation in education of 20 year olds by mode and level of education: 1988-89 to 1998-99
Table 8 Participation in education of 21 year olds by mode and level of education: 1988-89 to 1998-99
Table 9 Participation in School Education of 16-18 year olds by individual age: 1988-89 to 1998-99
Table 10 Participation in Further Education of 16-21 year olds by mode of attendance and individual age: 1988-89 to 1998-99
Table 11 Participation in Higher Education of 16-21 year olds by mode of attendance and individual age: 1988-89 to 1998-99
Table 12 Young Scots undergraduate first entrants to full-time higher education in the UK : 1988-89 to 1998-99
1. National Statistics Statement
This is a National Statistics publication. National Statistics are produced to high professional standards set out in the National Statistics Code of Practice. They undergo regular quality assurance reviews to ensure that they meet customer needs. They are produced free from any political interference.
2. Data Sources
Population figures are based on the mid-year estimates from GRO(S), adjusted to produce end-year population estimates.
2.2 School Education
2.2.1 Information on school pupil numbers is derived from data collected in the annual September school census. The school figures cover pupils in all publicly funded and independent secondary schools in Scotland, including special schools and the small number of children who receive their education outwith school, eg at home.
2.2.2 Age is as at 31 December. For secondary schools, a breakdown of pupil numbers by age was collected in the census up to 1993-94; from 1994-95 onwards the age breakdown has been estimated. For special schools, pupil numbers are available by age.
2.2.3 For the purposes of this analysis, school pupils are assumed to be full-time in the school system, though in practice some may spend part of their school week studying at a further education college. These pupils have been counted only in the school statistics.
2.2.4 It should be noted that pupils who left school at the winter leaving date are not included in the figures shown for schools if they left school once they became 16. However, they will be included in the further education totals if they went on to attend a further education course in the relevant academic year.
2.3 Further Education
2.3.1 Information on further education covers students who were undertaking either non-advanced courses in Further Education institutions (FEIs) or Higher Education institutions (HEIs). Further Education institutions (FEIs) are defined to cover FE colleges and local authority day colleges. These institutions provide both further and higher education courses - see notes under Higher Education below, for a definition of these courses.
2.3.2 Since July 1999, information on activity in further education institutions has been collected by the Scottish Further Education Funding Council.
2.3.3 The collection of data on further education students in higher education institutions (HEIs) was transferred to the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) in 1994. Prior to this, information was obtained from the HEIs and the Universities' Statistical Record.
2.3.4 The rest of the text in this section describes analysis of data for students attending FEIs, whether undertaking Further or Higher Education Courses.
2.3.5 Student numbers are based on a count of students attending over the whole session (1 Aug - 31 July). Age is calculated at 31 December of the relevant session. Where student age is unknown, ages have been randomly allocated based on the distribution of known ages.
2.3.6 Full time students include sandwich students. Withdrawals (students who complete less than a quarter of the course) are excluded. Overseas students (including those from other countries in the UK) are included in the figures; Scottish students studying outwith Scotland are excluded.
2.3.7 In the collection of Further Education statistics, students are counted once for each course taken. Participation by individuals has been estimated by removing multiple enrolments and by excluding students who are based in Scottish schools.
2.4 Higher Education
2.4.1 There are presently 20 higher education institutions in Scotland. Higher education students may be following courses in either the FEIs or HEIs. Since 1994-95 the Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA), has supplied the information for all students at HEIs.
2.4.2 The following definition of a higher education course, derived from the Further and Higher Education (Scotland) Act 1992, is used in the collection of these statistics:
a course at a higher level in preparation for a higher national diploma or certificate;
a first degree course;
a coursefor the education and training of teachers
a course of post-degree studies (including a higher degree course);
a course at a higher level in preparation for a qualification from a professional body;
a course at a higher level not falling within any of the paragraphs (a) to (e) above.
2.4.3 For the purposes of (a), (e) and (f) above, a course is regarded as providing education at a 'higher level' if its standard is higher than the standard of courses in preparation for examinations for:
the Scottish Certificate of Education at Higher Grade;
the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies;
the General Certificate of Education of England and Wales or Northern Ireland at advanced level;
the Scottish Vocational Education Council National Certificate.
2.4.4 Courses at further or higher education institutions which are at a lower level than higher education as defined above are treated as further education in this analysis.
2.4.5 Student numbers are session counts by age at 31 December. Overseas students (including those from other countries in the UK) are included in the figures. The following groups of students are excluded:
withdrawals (students who complete less than a quarter of the course);
Scottish students studying outwith Scotland;
Open University students.
2.4.6 It should be noted that the figures shown for higher education relate to students attending courses of higher education in Scotland. In 1998-99, this included an estimated 22,262 students domiciled outwith Scotland and excluded an estimated 4,746 Scots-domiciled students attending courses of higher education at institutions outwith Scotland. (This same point will apply, though to a much lesser extent, in the figures for schools and further education.)
3.1 Level of Education
All figures relating to higher and further education refer to the level of the course of study and not the type of institution attended.
Numbers and percentages within tables have been individually rounded and therefore figures may not sum to the totals shown.
The following symbols have been used:
- nil or less than half the final digit
- not applicable
3.4 Age Participation Index (API)
The Age Participation Index (API) table has been included in this release for comparison purposes. However, the figures are calculated on a different basis to the rest of the tables. The API is a measure based on all young Scottish students, aged under 21, who enter full time Higher Education anywhere in the UK, expressed as a percentage of the population in Scotland aged 17.
Some figures have been revised from those previously published.
4.1 The population estimates as at December 1997 in the previous publication were estimated using population projections for 1997 and 1998. For this publication, the calculation was revised using the mid-year estimates for those years to produce the end-year estimates.
4.2 The school participation figures have been revised from those previously published due to (a) small revisions in the school census data, and (b) revisions to the age distribution calculations.
Copies of all tables are available on the Scottish Executive's website at www.scotland.gov.uk. Public enquiries (non-media) about the information contained in this News Release should be addressed to Wilma Schofield, Statistician, The Scottish Executive Education Department, Education Statistics, Area 1-A West, Victoria Quay, Edinburgh EH6 6QQ. Telephone 0131 244 0303 or e-mail to: email@example.com.
NICOL STEPHEN SAYS PARTICIPATION FIGURES POINT WAY FORWARD
An increase in the number of 16 to 21 year olds participating in school, further and higher education in Scotland was welcomed by Deputy Minister for Enterprise and Lifelong Learning, Nicol Stephen today.
The figures, published today, show that in 1998-99, 64 per cent of 16 to 21 year olds participated in some form of full or part-time education, compared to 42 per cent in 1988-89.
Mr Stephen said that while these figures show an encouraging trend, more must be done and the Scottish Executive is committed to widening access to Further and Higher Education.
'The Scottish Executive is committed to making Scotland a learning nation where everyone has access to opportunities to learn throughout their lives.
'Our comprehensive student funding package for further and higher education announced in January is only one of a number of initiatives for widening access to education for all.
'We have abolished tuition fees for eligible students studying in Scotland from Autumn this year and plan to provide additional support for those wishing to enter further or higher education from disadvantaged backgrounds. Our package of proposals for student finance will be worth around£50 million a year once fully implemented.
'The figures published today are encouraging. It is good to see so many young people staying on at school as well as a substantial increase in those participating in some form of full or part-time further and higher education.
'But this is just a start. Everyone in Scotland must see education as a right and not just something for the privileged.
'Figures such as these show that Scotland has made a solid start. I am confident that the new initiatives put in place by this Executive will help us go from strength to strength and develop Scotland as a learning nation. This is crucial to our future economic success.'
A detailed breakdown of the Participation in Education by 16 to 21 year olds in Scotland: 1988-89 to 1998-99 figures and tables is available on the Scottish Executive's website.