The ideas date from 1980 and are being held up as models. The transformation of Bryant Park has been driven by the private sector under special city council legislation enabling the establishment of business improvement districts funded by local taxes.
The revitalisation of Central Park has been propelled by philanthropists via the Central Park Conservancy, which has raised about $170m (£100m) since its inception, with donations from corporations and individuals.
The Bryant Park scheme sees propert owners in the area paying a levy of 15-25 cents per square foot per year to fund improvements ranging from upgraded newspaper kiosks to well-maintained public conveniences. Additional funds come from rentals on cafes and foodstalls and sponsorship.
Improvements to the zones have been part funded by two tax-exempt bond issues which have raised about $40m.