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The public is better protected from dangerous offenders than ever ...
The public is better protected from dangerous offenders than ever

before thanks to the continuing work of Multi-Agency Public

Protection Arrangements (MAPPA), Paul Goggins, minister for the

correctional services, said today.

Today sees the publication of 42 local annual reports detailing the

work of MAPPA in safeguarding the public and managing dangerous

offenders in the community. The MAPPA ensure much closer supervision

of offenders, meaning that earlier pre-emptive action can and is

taken against them.

Established in 2001, MAPPA provide the statutory framework for

inter-agency co-operation in assessing and managing violent and sex

offenders in England and Wales. Under the arrangements, Police,

Probation and Prisons, supported by additional agencies including

housing, health and social services combine forces to manage the risk

to the public posed by dangerous offenders.

Those 'critical few' offenders that pose the highest risk are

referred to a Multi-Agency Public Protection Panel (MAPPP), where

their cases are regularly scrutinised by senior representatives of

local agencies. In the year to publication, 39,622 offenders were

covered by MAPPA arrangements, 2,152 of whom were referred to MAPPP.

This year the MAPPA were further strengthened by a number of

provisions in the Criminal Justice Act 2003. The Prison Service has

been made a 'Responsible Authority' alongside Police and Probation,

reinforcing the interaction between the three leading agencies in

dealing with dangerous offenders.

The Act also formalised the relationship of other agencies supporting

Police, Probation and Prison Services, introducing a 'duty to

co-operate' with the MAPPA for a range of criminal justice and social

care agencies including; health, housing and social services -

factors known to be critical to the successful resettlement of


In addition, the Act introduced direct public scrutiny of MAPPA by

requiring the Secretary of State to appoint two lay advisers to each

of the 42 strategic management boards that review them. The lay

advisers are intended to bring an ordinary person's perspective to

the boards, and have an opportunity to question what is done and why

in their area. Recruitment is already underway, and a number of lay

advisers are now in post.

Mr Goggins said:

'In the MAPPA we have a system of managing and monitoring dangerous

offenders that is world-leading, and succeeds in protecting the

public better than ever before.

'The arrangements have enabled police, probation and prisons, with

the committed involvement of partner agencies, to work at their very

best in supervising dangerous cases through active co-operation with

each other.

'The further strengthening of the MAPPA following the implementation

of the Criminal Justice Act has provided an even stronger

relationship between agencies, as well as a vital voice from the

community in the shape of lay advisers.

'We can never eliminate the risks posed by dangerous offenders, but

we can do a huge amount to minimise them and protect our communities.

As a society we have to face up to the fact that there are dangerous

offenders in all our communities and manage the risks they pose.

'The small proportion of offenders that pose the highest risk are

more closely scrutinised than ever by the Multi-Agency Public

Protection Panels (MAPPPs). And only a very small proportion - this

year as low as 1 per cent - of offenders referred to MAPPPs are

charged with serious further offences.'

National Probation Service director general Stephen Murphy said:

'The third annual MAPPA reports published today show that the

framework for managing potentially dangerous offenders in the

community has gone from strength to strength.

'It is the continued hard work of Probation Service staff, in

conjunction with colleagues from other agencies, that has made these

arrangements such a success.'

Spokesman on child protection for the Association of Chief Police

Officers and chief constable of Dyfed-Powys Police, Terence Grange


'Today's publication of the MAPPA annual reports provides the public

with an opportunity to learn about the tireless but often unseen work

undertaken by the Police and our partner agencies to safeguard them

against violent and sex offenders.

'The public should be reassured by this excellent work and by the

further strengthening of the MAPPA with the recent introduction of

new provisions, which will further add to our capability to ensure

their safety.'


1. The Criminal Justice and Court Services Act (2000) established the

MAPPA and placed them on a statutory basis. The Criminal Justice Act

(2003) re-enacted and strengthened those provisions. Essentially, the

legislation requires the Police, Prison and Probation Services

(acting jointly as the 'Responsible Authority') in each of the 42

Areas of England and Wales:

* to establish arrangements for assessing and managing the risks

posed by sexual and violent offenders

* to review and monitor the arrangements

* as part of the reviewing and monitoring arrangements, to prepare

and publish an annual report on their operation

2. As a result of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 the Responsible

Authority in each of the 42 Areas of England and Wales now comprises

the police, probation and prison services. In addition a range of

other agencies have also been placed under a duty to co-operate with

the Responsible Authority. These include:

* Local authority social services

* Primary care trusts, other NHS trusts and strategic health


* Jobcentres Plus

* Youth offending teams

* Registered social landlords which accommodate MAPPA offenders

* Local housing authorities

* Local education authorities

* Electronic monitoring providers

3. The total nu mber of registered sex offenders has risen from 21,413

in 2002/3 to 24, 572 in 2003/4, an increase of just below 15 per

cent. This was anticipated, as the length of time offenders remain

on the register is determined by the length of theirsentence/

disposal. This registration requirement currently varies between five

years and life. As a result, the number of registered sex offenders

is cumulative.

4. The total number of MAPPA offenders has fallen from 52,809 in

2002/3 to 39,492 in 2003/4. This is because for 2003/4 the basis for

counting Violent and Other Sex Offenders (Category 2) was changed to

a community based figure, rather than including offenders in custody,

which is now consistent with the counting method for Registered Sex

Offenders (Category 1) and other offenders (Category 3). This

revision ensures that all categories now reflect the supervision of

offenders in the community.

5. The Criminal Justice Act 2003 introduces new sentences for the

protection of the public. Dangerous sexual and violent offenders

will be subject to assessment by the Parole Board, and in serious

cases will not be released until their level of risk is assessed as

manageable in the community. The provisions are due to be implemented

towards the beginning of next year.

6. Copies of the MAPPA report are available at in the Public Protection section.


Number of MAPPA Offenders

(all percentages rounded to the nearest whole number)

Table 1. Total number of MAPPA Offenders by Category

Category 2002/3 2003/4 % change

1. Registered Sex 421,413 424,572 15%

Offenders (RSOs)1

2. Violent Offenders 29,594 12,754 57%

and other sex


3. Other offenders3 1,802 2,166 20%

Totals 52,809 39,492 25%

1 As defined by Section 327(2) of the Criminal Justice Act (2003)

2 As defined by Section 327(3)-(5) of the Criminal Justice Act (2003)

3 As defined by Section 325(2)(b)of the Criminal Justice Act (2003)

4 Each Area's annual report includes the total number of RSOs in that

Area and as a proportion of the population (RSOs per 100,000). In

2002/3 the RSO per 100,000 average was 40; in 2003/4 it was 46.

Table 2. Number of MAPPA Offenders referred to the Multi-Agency

Public Protection Panels (MAPPPs)1

Category No. referred to No. referred to % change

MAPPPs 03 (as % of MAPPPs 04 (as % of

all this type of all this type of

offender) offender)

1. Registered Sex 1,383 (6%) 1,109 (5%) 20%

Offenders (RSOs)

2. Violent & Other 1,096 (4%) 705 (6%) 36%

Sex Offenders

3. Other Offenders 364 (20%) 338 (16%) 7%?

Totals 2,843 2,152 24%

1 The MAPPPs are the highest of three levels of MAPPA activity to

which offenders are referred either because they present the highest

risks and their management requires multi-agency co-operation at a

senior level because of the complexity of the risk management

arrangements; or because, although not necessarily of the highest

risk, their cases are exceptional because of their sensitivity

(resulting, for example, from the notoriety of the offender).

Table 3. Some outcomes of MAPPP referrals

Outcome(number of offenders Totals Totals 04 % change

referred to the MAPPP 03

against whom this action was


Imprisoned for breach of 442 269 39%


Imprisoned for breach of a 491 261 47%

Sex Offender Order or

Restraining Order

Charged with a further 48 26 46%

serious sexual or violent


1 There was a 34 per cent increase (to 122) in the number of Sex

Offender Orders imposed in 2003/4 and 50 new interim sex offender

order s were granted.

Table 4.

Registered sex offenders (RSOs) per 100,000 of population.

AreaDesc RSO per 100k RSO per 100k 03/04


Avon and Somerset 35 44

Bedfordshire 39 48

Cambridgeshire 39 44

Cheshire 40 44

County Durham 40 44

Cumbria 42 47

Derbyshire 47 49

Devon and Cornwall 40 46

Dorset 39 48

Dyfed-Powys 41 48

Essex 27 33

Gloucestershire 35 41

Greater Manchester 49 54

Gwent 50 57

Hampshire 48 56

Hertfordshire 21 27

Humberside 62 66

Kent 46 49

Lancashire 45 51

Leicestershire 44 52

Lincolnshire 39 52

London 28 31

Merseyside 47 56

Norfolk 52 60

North Wales 53 47

North Yorkshire 31 38

Northamptonshire 32 39

Northumbria 45 53

Nottinghamshire 59 63

South Wales 44 49

South Yorkshire 44 52

Staffordshire 34 43

Suffolk 41 45

Surrey 26 34

Sussex 36 38

Teesside 54 61

Thames Valley 26 36

Warwickshire 36 36

West Mercia 46 49

West Midlands 50 63

West Yorkshire 58 67

Wiltshire 42 38

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