Ms Roney has been at Sheffield City Council since 1999, most recently as executive director of neighbourhoods and community care. She replaces John Foster who left Wakefield earlier this year.
Ms Roney is also a board member on the Transform South Yorkshire housing market renewal pathfinder and played a key role in establishing Sheffield’s arm's-length management organisation.
'Too good an opportunity to miss'
Ms Roney said: "Wakefield has a very committed workforce. I have enjoyed my time in Sheffield, but the chance to work in Wakefield was clearly too good an opportunity to miss."
Wakefield leader Peter Box (Lab) welcomed Ms Roney's appointment. He said: "She brings a wealth of experience which will help us to take forward our priorities of safer and stronger communities, skills, enterprise and work and healthier communities."
Corporate director Jon Pitt is continuing as interim head of paid service until Ms Roney starts her new job later this year.