The national survey covers nearly 2,500 employed people, including self-employed, across all occupational groups, from professional and managerial to manual and is directly comparable with the results of a similar survey carried out in 1992.
Most employees say they are working harder and longer. Only 16 per cent of male professionals and managers said that they were completely or very satisfied with the hours they worked compared with 36 per cent in 1992. As many as 46 per cent of men and 32 per cent of women in the sample said they frequently worked more hours on top of their basic week while 83 per cent of those who work long hours said they did so in order to meet deadlines and pressures, and 75 per cent added that it was now a requirement of the job to work longer hours.
Some people, notably those in top professional and managerial jobs, report that they work long hours because it brings work satisfaction, but that is a minority view. Among skilled manual workers, for example, 28 per cent cited work satisfaction alongside 77 per cent who put long hours down to deadlines and 81 per cent who cited money as the reason.
The new survey reveals that a growing proportion of the workforce needs advanced or complex information technology skills. As many as 80 per cent of managers and administrators, for instance, said in the second survey that these skills were now essential to their work, 84 per cent of clerks and secretaries and 71 per cent of sales people.
But the divide between skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled persists. Across the occupational groups, more people have computers at home than at work and this is particularly noticeable among semi-skilled and unskilled manual, with only 15 per cent of them using the internet at work but 41 per cent of them having access to a personal computer at home.
1. A pamphlet, The Significance of the Working in Britain in 2000 survey, by Robert Taylor, media fellow with the ESRC's Future of Work Programme, is available here .
2. The ESRC is the UK's largest funding agency for research and postgraduate training relating to social and economic issues. It has a track record of producing high-quality relevant research to business, the public sector and government. The ESRC invests more than£46m every year in social sciences research. At any time, its range of funding schemes may be supporting 2,000 researchers within academic institutions and research policy institutes. It also funds postgraduate training within the social sciences, thereby nurturing the researchers of tomorrow.
3. The Future of Work Programme was launched by the ESRC in October 1998 and is helping to rectify the gaps in our knowledge. Comprising 27 projects and involving more than one hundred leading researchers across the UK, this is the most systematic and rigorous enquiry of its kind, providing evidence-based research for a better understanding of the changing world of work in a period of rapid social, technological and economic change.
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